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Spain performs well in many measures of well-being, as shown by the fact that it ranks close to the average or higher in several topics in the Better Life Index.
Money, while it cannot buy happiness, is an important means to achieving higher living standards. In Spain, the average household net-adjusted disposable income per capita is 22 799 USD a year, slightly less than the OECD average of 23 938 USD a year. But there is a considerable gap between the richest and poorest – the top 20% of the population earn more than six times as much as the bottom 20%.
In terms of employment, around 56% of people aged 15 to 64 in Spain have a paid job, below the OECD employment average of 65%. Some 61% of men are in paid work, compared with 51% of women. People in Spain work 1 686 hours a year, less than the OECD average of 1 765 hours. Only 6% of employees work very long hours, less than the OECD average of 9%, with 8% of men working very long hours compared with just 3% for women.
Having a good education is an important requisite for finding a job. In Spain, 54% of adults aged 25-64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, lower than the OECD average of 75%. This is slightly truer of women than men, as 53% of men have successfully completed high-school compared with 55% of women. In terms of the quality of the educational system, the average student scored 490 in reading literacy, maths and science in the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), lower than the OECD average of 497. On average in Spain, girls outperformed boys by 2 point, lower than the average OECD gap of 8 points.
In terms of health, life expectancy at birth in Spain is 82 years, two years higher than the OECD average of 80 years. Life expectancy for women is 85 years, compared with 79 for men. The level of atmospheric PM10 – tiny air pollutant particles small enough to enter and cause damage to the lungs – is 23.7 micrograms per cubic meter, higher than the OECD average of 20.1 micrograms per cubic meter. Spain also performs below the OECD average in terms of water quality, as 75% of people say they are satisfied with the quality of their water, below the OECD average of 84%.
Concerning the public sphere, there is a strong sense of community and moderate levels of civic participation in Spain, where 92% of people believe that they know someone they could rely on in time of need, higher than the OECD average of 89%. Voter turnout, a measure of public trust in government and of citizens’ participation in the political process, was 69% during recent elections; this figure is slightly lower than the OECD average of 72%. There is little difference in voting levels across society; voter turnout for the top 20% of the population is an estimated 76% and for the bottom 20% it is an estimated 66%, a slightly narrower gap than the OECD average gap of 11 percentage points.
In general, 65% of people in Spain say they have more positive experiences in an average day (feelings of rest, pride in accomplishment, enjoyment, etc.) than negative ones (pain, worry, sadness, boredom, etc.), less than the OECD average of 76%.
OECD in Action
The 2012 Labour Market Reform in Spain: A Preliminary Assessment
This report provides an initial evaluation of the comprehensive reform of the Spanish labour market undertaken in 2012. It describes the key components of the 2012 reform and places them in the context of the evolution of labour market institutions in other OECD member countries, with a particular focus on collective bargaining and employment protection legislation.Read this report
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Spain in Detail
Housing – Spain expand
Living in satisfactory housing conditions is one of the most important aspects of people’s lives. Housing is essential to meet basic needs, such as shelter, but it is not just a question of four walls and a roof. Housing should offer a place to sleep and rest where people feel safe and have privacy and personal space; somewhere they can raise a family. All of these elements help make a house a home. And of course there is the question whether people can afford adequate housing.
Housing costs take up a large share of the household budget and represent the largest single expenditure for many individuals and families, by the time you add up elements such as rent, gas, electricity, water, furniture or repairs. In Spain, households on average spend 20% of their gross adjusted disposable income on keeping a roof over their heads, slightly below the OECD average of 21%.
In addition to housing costs it is also important to examine living conditions, such as the average number of rooms shared per person and whether households have access to basic facilities. In Spain, 94% of people say they are satisfied with their current housing situation, more than the OECD average of 87% and one of the highest scores in OECD countries. This high level of subjective satisfaction reflects Spain’s good performance in objective housing indicators.
The number of rooms in a dwelling, divided by the number of persons living there, indicates whether residents are living in crowded conditions. Overcrowded housing may have a negative impact on physical and mental health, relations with others and children’s development. In addition, dense living conditions are often a sign of inadequate water and sewage supply. In Spain, the average home contains 1.9 rooms per person, more than the OECD average of 1.6 rooms per person. In terms of basic facilities, nearly every dwelling in Spain contains private access to an indoor flushing toilet, more than the OECD average of 97.9%.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Income – Spain expand
While money may not buy happiness, it is an important means to achieving higher living standards and thus greater well-being. Higher economic wealth may also improve access to quality education, health care and housing.
Household net-adjusted disposable income is the amount of money that a household earns each year after taxes and transfers. It represents the money available to a household for spending on goods or services. In Spain, the average household net-adjusted disposable income per capita is 22 799 USD a year, slightly lower than the OECD average of 23 938 USD.
Household financial wealth is the total value of a household’s financial worth. In Spain, the average household net financial wealth per capita is estimated at 23 920 USD, lower than the OECD average of 42 903 USD. While the ideal measure of household wealth should include non-financial assets (e.g. land and dwellings), such information is currently available for only a small number of OECD countries.
Despite a general increase in living standards across OECD countries over the past fifteen years, not all people have benefited from this to the same extent. In Spain, the average net adjusted disposable income of the top 20% of the population is an estimated 45 165 USD a year, whereas the bottom 20% live on an estimated 7 144 USD a year.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Jobs – Spain expand
Having a job brings many important benefits, including: providing a source of income, improving social inclusion, fulfilling one’s own aspirations, building self-esteem and developing skills and competencies. In Spain, around 56% of the working-age population aged 15 to 64 has a paid job. This figure is much lower than the OECD employment average of 65% and one of the lowest figures in the OECD. Employment rates are generally higher for individuals with a higher level of education; in Spain an estimated 74% of individuals with at least a tertiary education have a paid job, compared with an estimated 49% for those without an upper secondary education. This 25 percentage point difference is lower than the OECD average of 33 percentage points and suggests the job market in Spain is relatively inclusive.
Women are still less likely than men to participate in the labour market. In Spain, 51% of women have jobs. This is less than the OECD average of 57% and less than the 61% employment rate of men in Spain. This 10 percentage point gender difference is below the 16 percentage point OECD average difference and suggests Spain could further improve employment opportunities for women but has generally been successful in addressing the constraints and barriers women face accessing work.
Young people in Spain, aged 15-24, are facing important difficulties, with an unemployment rate of 53.2% much higher than the OECD average of 16.3% and one of the highest rates in the OECD.
Unemployed persons are defined as those who are not currently working but are willing to do so and actively searching for work. Long-term unemployment can have a large negative effect on feelings of well-being and self-worth and result in a loss of skills, further reducing employability. In Spain, the percentage of the labour force that has been unemployed for a year or longer is currently at 11.1%, much higher than the OECD average of 2.7%. There is little difference on average between men and women in the OECD area when it comes to long-term unemployment. In Spain, however, the difference is relatively high with an unemployment rate of 10.8% for men and 11.6% for women.
The wages and other monetary benefits that come with employment are an important aspect of job quality. In Spain, people earn 34 747 US dollars per year on average, less than the OECD average of 41 010 USD. Not everyone earns that amount however. Whereas the top 20% of the population earn an estimated 46 387 USD per year, the bottom 20% live on an estimated 21 235 USD per year.
Another essential factor of employment quality is job security. Workers facing a high risk of job loss are more vulnerable, especially in countries with smaller social safety nets. In Spain, workers face a 17.7% chance of losing their job, much higher than the OECD average of 5.3%.
Better Policies for Better Lives
Encouraging entrepreneurship among women
Spain was hit very hard by the economic crisis and the unemployment rate for women has been the highest in the EU since 2007. Women are less likely than men to start a business, and those who do typically operate smaller businesses than men.
The EMEKIN project in Gipuzkoa province in northern Spain provides entrepreneurship training and financial support to women who want to start a business. The project also matches new women entrepreneurs with more experienced entrepreneurs who provide mentoring. A key feature of this project is its integrated approach, involving several key stakeholders – local government, financial institutions and other women entrepreneurs. This allows potential women entrepreneurs to strengthen their human, social and financial capital.
Available data suggest that the level of entrepreneurial activity by women in the province is increasing, both in terms of quality and quantity.
More ResourcesWell‑being in the workplace: Measuring job quality
Community – Spain expand
Humans are social creatures. The frequency of our contact with others and the quality of our personal relationships are thus crucial determinants of our well-being. Helping others can also make you happier. People who volunteer tend to be more satisfied with their lives than those who do not. Time spent volunteering also contributes to a healthy civil society. On average, people in Spain spend 1 minute per day in volunteering activities, less than the OECD average of 4 minutes per day. Around 53% reported having helped a stranger in the last month, slightly more than the OECD average of 49%.
A strong social network, or community, can provide emotional support during both good and bad times as well as provide access to jobs, services and other material opportunities. In Spain, 92% of people believe that they know someone they could rely on in a time of need, more than the OECD average of 89%. There is a 4 percentage point difference between men and women, as 94% of men believe they have this kind of social support, compared with 90% of women. There is also a difference in the availability of social support depending on people’s education level. In Spain, around 86% of people who have completed primary education report having someone to count on for help in times of need, compared to 93% for people who attained tertiary education.
A weak social network can result in limited economic opportunities, a lack of contact with others, and eventually, feelings of isolation. Socially isolated individuals face difficulties integrating into society as a contributing member and fulfilling personal aspirations.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance OECD Insights: Human Capital
Education – Spain expand
A well-educated and well-trained population is essential for a country’s social and economic well-being. Education plays a key role in providing individuals with the knowledge, skills and competences needed to participate effectively in society and in the economy. Having a good education greatly improves the likelihood of finding a job and earning enough money. Across OECD countries, 83% of people with university-level degrees have a job, compared with 55% for those with only a secondary school diploma. Lifetime earnings also increase with each level of education.
Following a decline in manual labour over previous decades, employers now favour a more educated labour force. High-school graduation rates therefore provide a good indication of whether a country is preparing its students to meet the minimum requirements of the job market. In Spain, 54% of adults aged 25-64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, much lower than the OECD average of 75%. Across the OECD, slightly more men aged 25-64 have the equivalent of a high-school degree compared with women from that same age group. In Spain however, 53% of men have successfully completed high-school compared with 55% of women. Among younger people – a better indicator of Spain’s future – 65% of 25-34 year-olds have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, also lower than the OECD average of 82% but showing progress.
The Spanish can expect to go through 17.6 years of education between the ages of 5 and 39, close to the OECD average of 17.7 years. This high level of education expectancy could influence Spain’s future performance in the educational attainment of its 25-34 year-old population.
But graduation rates, while important, speak little to the quality of education received. The OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) reviews the extent to which students have acquired some of the knowledge and skills that are essential for full participation in modern societies. In 2012, PISA focused on examining students’ reading ability, skills in maths and level in sciences, as research shows that these skills are more reliable predictors of economic and social well-being than the number of years spent in school.
The average student in Spain scored 490 in reading literacy, maths and sciences, lower than the OECD average of 497. On average, girls outperformed boys by 2 points, much less than the average OECD gap of 8 points.
The best-performing school systems manage to provide high-quality education to all students. In Spain, the average difference in results, between the students with the highest socio-economic background and the students with the lowest socio-economic background, is 92 points, lower than the OECD average of 96 points. This suggests the school system in Spain provides relatively equal access to high-quality education.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Environment – Spain expand
The quality of our local living environment has a direct impact on our health. Having access to green spaces for example, is essential for quality of life. An unspoiled environment is a source of satisfaction, improves mental well-being, allows people to recover from the stress of everyday life and to perform physical activity. In Spain, 17% of people feel they lack access to green spaces or recreational areas, more than the 12 % average of OECD European countries.
Outdoor air pollution is one important environmental issue that directly affects the quality of peoples’ lives. Despite national and international interventions and decreases in major pollutant emissions, the health impacts of urban air pollution continue to worsen, with air pollution set to become the top environmental cause of premature mortality globally by 2050. Air pollution in urban centres, often caused by transport and the use of small-scale burning of wood or coal, is linked to a range of health problems, from minor eye irritation to upper respiratory symptoms in the short-term and chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer in the long-term. Children and the elderly may be particularly vulnerable.
PM10 – tiny particulate matter small enough to be inhaled into the deepest part of the lung – is monitored in OECD countries because it can harm human health and reduce life expectancy. In Spain, PM10 levels are 23.7 micrograms per cubic meter, higher than the OECD average of 20.1 micrograms per cubic meter and the annual guideline limit of 20 micrograms per cubic meter set by the World Health Organization.
Access to clean water is fundamental to human well-being. Despite significant progress in OECD countries in reducing water pollution, improvements in freshwater quality are not always easy to discern. In Spain, 75% of people say they are satisfied with water quality, lower than the OECD average of 84%.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030
Governance – Spain expand
Trust in government is essential for social cohesion and well-being. In Spain, 18% of people say they trust their national government, less than the OECD average of 39%. High voter turnout is another measure of public trust in government and of citizens’ participation in the political process. In the most recent elections for which data is available, voter turnout in Spain was 69% of those registered. This figure is lower than the OECD average of 72%.
Even if the right to vote is universal in all OECD countries, not everyone exercises this right. There is little difference in the voting rates of men and women in most OECD countries. This is the case in Spain, where the voter turnout of men and women is similar, at an estimated 70% and 68%. While on average there are few differences between men and women concerning participation in elections, income can have a strong influence on voter turnout. In Spain, voter turnout for the top 20% of the population is an estimated 76%, whereas the participation rate of the bottom 20% is an estimated 66%. This 10 percentage point difference is slightly smaller than the OECD average difference of 11 percentage points Ensuring that government decision making is not compromised by conflicts of interest is key to maintaining trust in government. Transparency is therefore essential to hold government to account and to maintain confidence in public institutions.
Freedom of information laws (FOI) allow the possibility for individuals to access undisclosed information. For such policies to be successful, the public should have a clear understanding of their rights under the law, should be able to file requests with ease and should be protected against any possible retaliation. People in Spain can file a request for information either in writing or online – thus greatly facilitating the FOI process. However, there are no provisions for anonymity or protection from retaliation.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Health – Spain expand
Most OECD countries have enjoyed large gains in life expectancy over the past decades, thanks to improvements in living conditions, public health interventions and progress in medical care. Life expectancy at birth in Spain stands at 82 years, two years above the OECD average of 80 years. Life expectancy for women is 85 years, compared with 79 for men, a gender difference in line with the 6 year average OECD gender gap, with a life expectancy of 83 years for women and 77 for men.
Higher life expectancy is generally associated with higher healthcare spending per person, although many other factors have an impact on life expectancy (such as living standards, lifestyles, education and environmental factors). Total health spending accounts for 9.3% of GDP in Spain, slightly below the OECD average of 9.4%. Spain ranks slightly below the OECD average in terms of health spending per person, at 3 072 USD, compared with an OECD average of 3 322 USD in 2011. Between 2000 and 2010, total health spending in Spain increased in real terms by 4.3% per year on average, a slightly faster rate than the OECD average of 4.0%.
Throughout the OECD, tobacco consumption and excessive weight gain remain two important risk factors for many chronic diseases. Spain has achieved progress in reducing tobacco consumption, with current rates of daily smokers among adults standing at 23.9%, down from 41% in 1985. However, smoking rates in Spain still remain higher than the OECD average of 20.9%. In many OECD countries, large proportions of the population are overweight or obese. In Spain, the obesity rate among adults – based on self-reported height and weight – is 16.6%, lower than the OECD average of 17.2%. Obesity’s growing prevalence foreshadows increases in the occurrence of health problems (such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and asthma), and higher health care costs in the future.
When asked, “How is your health in general?”75% of people in Spain reported to be in good health, higher than the OECD average of 69%. Despite the subjective nature of this question, answers have been found to be a good predictor of people’s future health care use. Gender, age and social status may affect answers to this question. On average in OECD countries, men are more likely to report good health than women, with an average of 72% for men and 67% for women. In Spain, the average is 78% for men and 72% for women. Not surprisingly, older people report poorer health, as do those who are unemployed, or who have less education or income. About 86% of adults with a disposable income in the top 20% in Spain rated their health as ‘good’ or ‘very good’, compared to about 71% for those with a disposable income in the bottom 20%.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Life Satisfaction – Spain expand
Happiness or subjective well-being can be measured in terms of life satisfaction, the presence of positive experiences and feelings, and the absence of negative experiences and feelings. Such measures, while subjective, are a useful complement to objective data to compare the quality of life across countries.
Life satisfaction measures how people evaluate their life as a whole rather than their current feelings. It captures a reflective assessment of which life circumstances and conditions are important for subjective well-being. When asked to rate their general satisfaction with life on a scale from 0 to 10, the Spanish gave it a 6.2 grade, lower than the OECD average of 6.6.
There is little difference in life satisfaction levels between men and women across OECD countries. This is true in Spain, where men gave their life a 6.0 grade and women 6.3. Education levels, however, influence subjective well-being. Whereas people who have only completed primary education in Spain have a life satisfaction level of 5.8, this score reaches 7.0 for people with tertiary education.
Happiness, or subjective well-being, is also measured by the presence of positive experiences and feelings, and/or the absence of negative experiences and feelings. In Spain, 65% of people reported having more positive experiences in an average day (feelings of rest, pride in accomplishment, enjoyment, etc.) than negative ones (pain, worry, sadness, boredom, etc.). This figure is lower than the OECD average of 76% and one of the lowest in the OECD.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Safety – Spain expand
Personal security is a core element for the well-being of individuals, and largely reflects the risks of people being physically assaulted or falling victim to other types of crime. Across the OECD, assault rates have generally declined in the past five years. In Spain, almost 4.2% of people reported falling victim to assault over the previous 12 months, slightly more than the OECD average of 3.9%. There is little difference between men and women in assault rates, at respectively 4.1% and 4.3%.
The homicide rate (the number of murders per 100,000 inhabitants) is a more reliable measure of a country’s safety level because, unlike other crimes, murders are usually always reported to the police. According to the latest OECD data, Spain’s homicide rate is 0.7, much lower than the OECD average of 4.1. In Spain, the homicide rate for men is 1.0 compared with 0.4 for women.
Fear of crime is another important indicator as it can constrain behaviour, restrict freedom and threaten the foundation of communities. Despite a general reduction in assault rates in the past five years, in many OECD countries feelings of security have declined. In Spain, 75% of people feel safe walking alone at night, higher than the OECD average of 69%. While men are at a greater risk of being victims of assaults and violent crimes, women report lower feelings of security than men. This has been explained by a greater fear of sexual attacks, the feeling they must also protect their children and their concern that they may be seen as partially responsible.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Work-Life Balance – Spain expand
Finding a suitable balance between work and life is a challenge for all workers, especially working parents. Some couples would like to have (more) children, but do not see how they could afford to stop working. Other parents are happy with the number of children in their family, but would like to work more. This is a challenge to governments because if parents cannot achieve their desired work/life balance, not only is their welfare lowered but so is development in the country.
People spend one-tenth to one-fifth of their time on unpaid work. The distribution of tasks within the family is still influenced by gender roles: men are more likely to spend more hours in paid work, while women spend longer on unpaid domestic work. Men in Spain spend 154 minutes per day cooking, cleaning or caring, more than the OECD average of 141 minutes but less than the time spent by Spanish women on domestic work, 258 minutes per day on average.
Another important aspect of work-life balance is the amount of time a person spends at work. Evidence suggests that long work hours may impair personal health, jeopardize safety and increase stress. People in Spain work 1 686 hours a year, less than the OECD average of 1 765. The share of employees working more than 50 hours per week is not very large across OECD countries. In Spain, some 6% of employees work very long hours, less than the OECD average of 9%. Overall, men spend more hours in paid work: in Spain 8% of men work very long hours, compared with 3% for women.
The more people work, the less time they have to spend on other activities, such as time with others or leisure. The amount and quality of leisure time is important for people’s overall well-being, and can bring additional physical and mental health benefits. In Spain,full-time workers devote 67% of their day on average, or 16.1 hours, to personal care (eating, sleeping, etc.) and leisure (socialising with friends and family, hobbies, games, computer and television use, etc.) – more than the OECD average of 15 hours. Fewer hours in paid work for women do not necessarily result in greater leisure time. In Spain, both men and women devote approximately 16 hours per day to personal care and leisure.
Better Policies for Better Lives
Spain should strengthen its policies to combine work and family life
Families in Spain find it difficult to combine work and family life, both female employment rates and fertility rates are low in international comparison. At only 1.36 children per woman, fertility rates in Spain have been amongst the lowest in the OECD for the past two decades. Increasingly, women and men first want to establish themselves in the labour market before having children. This has led to a postponement of childbirth and the average age of first childbirth for mothers is now close to 30. Low fertility rates are also related to a fall in the number of large families and a significant proportion of women remaining childless.
Female employment in Spain has risen markedly over recent years, from 32.5% in 1995 to 51% today. However, despite this important increase, female employment in Spain is still below the OECD average (57%); 75% of mothers go back to work only 8 years after childbirth. Governmental efforts in extending coverage and providing support to families to reduce the cost of childcare have led to an important increase in childcare participation. In 2010, 39.3% of children under 6 years old were enrolled in childcare services (the OECD average is 32.6%). However, out-of-school-hours care is limited and many working parents rely on informal providers: about a quarter of grandparents in Spain take care of their grandchildren on a daily basis.