LuxembourgLearn even more about Luxembourg at oecd.org
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Luxembourg performs well in many measures of well-being, as shown by the fact that it ranks among the top countries in several topics in the Better Life Index.
Money, while it cannot buy happiness, is an important means to achieving higher living standards. In Luxembourg, the average household net-adjusted disposable income per capita is 35 635 USD per year, much higher than the OECD average of 23 938 USD a year.
In terms of employment, nearly 66% of people aged 15 to 64 in Luxembourg have a paid job, slightly above the OECD employment average of 65%. Some 72% of men are in paid work, compared with 59% of women. People in Luxembourg work 1 609 hours a year, less than the OECD average of 1 765 hours. Close to 3% of employees work very long hours, less than the OECD average of 9%, with 4% of men working very long hours compared with just 2% for women.
Having a good education is an important requisite for finding a job. In Luxembourg, 77% of adults aged 25-64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, slightly more than the OECD average of 75%. This is truer of men than women, as 79% of men have successfully completed high-school compared with 75% of women. In terms of the quality of the education system, the average student scored 490 in reading literacy, maths and science in the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), lower than the OECD average of 497. Although girls outperformed boys in many OECD countries, in Luxembourg boys scored 3 points higher than girls on average.
In terms of health, life expectancy at birth in Luxembourg is 81 years, one year higher than the OECD average of 80 years. Life expectancy for women is 84 years, compared with 79 for men. The level of atmospheric PM10 – tiny air pollutant particles small enough to enter and cause damage to the lungs – is 12.5 micrograms per cubic meter, considerably lower than the OECD average of 20.1 micrograms per cubic meter. Luxembourg could perform better in terms of water quality, as 81% of people say they are satisfied with the quality of their water, compared with an OECD average of 84%.
Concerning the public sphere, there is a strong sense of community and high levels of civic participation in Luxembourg, where 88% of people believe that they know someone they could rely on in time of need, slightly lower than the OECD average of 89%. Voter turnout, a measure of public trust in government and of citizens’ participation in the political process, was 91% during recent elections, much higher than the OECD average of 72% and one of the highest in the OECD.
In general, people in Luxembourg are less satisfied with their lives than the OECD average, with 68% of people saying they have more positive experiences in an average day (feelings of rest, pride in accomplishment, enjoyment, etc.) than negative ones (pain, worry, sadness, boredom, etc.). This figure is lower than the OECD average of 76%.
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OECD Economic Outlook 2013: Luxembourg
This chapter on Luxembourg provides major economic trends and prospects for the next two years.Read this chapter
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Luxembourg in Detail
Housing – Luxembourg expand
Living in satisfactory housing conditions is one of the most important aspects of people’s lives. Housing is essential to meet basic needs, such as shelter, but it is not just a question of four walls and a roof. Housing should offer a place to sleep and rest where people feel safe and have privacy and personal space; somewhere they can raise a family. All of these elements help make a house a home. And of course there is the question whether people can afford adequate housing.
Housing costs take up a large share of the household budget and represent the largest single expenditure for many individuals and families, by the time you add up elements such as rent, gas, electricity, water, furniture or repairs. In Luxembourg, households on average spend 23% of their gross adjusted disposable income on keeping a roof over their heads, above the OECD average of 21%.
In addition to housing costs it is also important to examine living conditions, such as the average number of rooms shared per person and whether households have access to basic facilities. The number of rooms in a dwelling, divided by the number of persons living there, indicates whether residents are living in crowded conditions. Overcrowded housing may have a negative impact on physical and mental health, relations with others and children’s development. In addition, dense living conditions are often a sign of inadequate water and sewage supply. In Luxembourg, the average home contains 2.0 rooms per person, more than the OECD average of 1.6 rooms per person. In terms of basic facilities, 99.3% of people in Luxembourg live in dwellings with private access to an indoor flushing toilet, more than the OECD average of 97.9%.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Income – Luxembourg expand
While money may not buy happiness, it is an important means to achieving higher living standards and thus greater well-being. Higher economic wealth may also improve access to quality education, health care and housing.
Household net-adjusted disposable income is the amount of money that a household earns each year after taxes and transfers. It represents the money available to a household for spending on goods or services. In Luxembourg, the average household net-adjusted disposable income per capita is 35 635 USD a year, much higher than the OECD average of 23 938 USD.
Household financial wealth is the total value of a household’s financial worth. In Luxembourg, the average household net financial wealth per capita is estimated at 57 159 USD, higher than the OECD average of 42 903 USD. While the ideal measure of household wealth should include non-financial assets (e.g. land and dwellings), such information is currently available for only a small number of OECD countries.
Better Policies for Better Lives
Maintaining low income inequality
Luxembourg performs well in fighting income disparities. While several OECD countries have seen a substantial increase in income inequality since at least the mid-1980s, Luxembourg faced only a modest rise, while maintaining social cohesion in a strong growth environment. Although poverty rates have increased in Luxembourg, the change has been small and income inequality remains in the lower half of OECD countries.
Several factors are likely to have contributed to this outcome. Wage growth has been similar at all earnings levels. Also, social benefits are generous, although they should be better targeted to benefit both growth and equity.
Despite rapid overall employment growth, the rise in the overall unemployment rate points to structural problems in the labour markets. The system of automatic, legislated wage indexation may have contributed to this outcome, as indexation has been triggered four times between March 2009 and October 2012, increasing wages by almost 8% over this period. A temporary moderation of this mechanism has been put in place from 2012 to 2014, limiting up-rating to no more than 2.5% per year, so that the inflation peaks are not passed through to wages. The wage indexation system and minimum wage should be reviewed to ensure that they do not present risks to competitiveness, notably by removing downward rigidities.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Jobs – Luxembourg expand
Having a job brings many important benefits, including: providing a source of income, improving social inclusion, fulfilling one’s own aspirations, building self-esteem and developing skills and competencies. In Luxembourg, close to 66% of the working-age population aged 15 to 64 has a paid job. This figure is close to the OECD employment average of 65%. Employment rates are generally higher for individuals with a higher level of education; in Luxembourg, an estimated 85% of individuals with at least a tertiary education have a paid job, compared with an estimated 45% for those without an upper secondary education. This 40 percentage point difference is larger than the OECD average difference of 33 percentage points and suggests the job market in Luxembourg is relatively restrictive.
Women are still less likely than men to participate in the labour market. In Luxembourg, 59% of women have jobs. This is close to the OECD average of 57% but less than the 72% employment rate of men in Luxembourg. This 13 percentage point gender difference is smaller than the 16 percentage point OECD average gap.
Young people aged 15-24 in Luxembourg are facing difficulties however, with an unemployment rate of 18.8% compared with the OECD average of 16.3%.
Unemployed persons are defined as those who are not currently working but are willing to do so and actively searching for work. Long-term unemployment can have a large negative effect on feelings of well-being and self-worth and result in a loss of skills, further reducing employability. In Luxembourg, the percentage of the labour force that has been unemployed for a year or longer is currently at nearly 1.6%, lower than the OECD average of 2.7%. There is little difference on average between men and women in the OECD area when it comes to long-term unemployment. In Luxembourg, the long-term unemployment rate for men is slightly lower than for women, with respectively 1.3% and 1.9%.
The wages and other monetary benefits that come with employment are an important aspect of job quality. In Luxembourg, people earn 52 542 US dollars per year on average, much more than the OECD average of 41 010 USD. Not everyone earns that amount however. Whereas the top 20% of the population earn an estimated 67 314 USD, the bottom 20% live on an estimated 31 204 USD per year.
Another essential factor of employment quality is job security. Workers facing a high risk of job loss are more vulnerable, especially in countries with smaller social safety nets. In Luxembourg, workers face a 4% chance of losing their job, lower than the OECD average of 5.3%.
More ResourcesWell‑being in the workplace: Measuring job quality
Community – Luxembourg expand
Humans are social creatures. The frequency of our contact with others and the quality of our personal relationships are thus crucial determinants of our well-being. Helping others can also make you happier. In Luxembourg, 31% of people reported having helped a stranger in the last month, one of the lowest rates in the OECD where the average is 49%.
A strong social network, or community, can provide emotional support during both good and bad times as well as provide access to jobs, services and other material opportunities. In Luxembourg, 88% of people believe that they know someone they could rely on in a time of need, close to the OECD average of 89%. There is a 7 percentage point difference between men and women, as 85% of men believe they have this kind of social support, compared with 92% of women. There is also a clear relationship between the availability of social support on the one hand, and people’s education level on the other. In Luxembourg, 86% of people who have completed primary education report having someone to count on for help in times of need, compared to 94% for people who attained tertiary education.
A weak social network can result in limited economic opportunities, a lack of contact with others, and eventually, feelings of isolation. Socially isolated individuals face difficulties integrating into society as a contributing member and fulfilling personal aspirations.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance OECD Insights: Human Capital
Education – Luxembourg expand
A well-educated and well-trained population is essential for a country’s social and economic well-being. Education plays a key role in providing individuals with the knowledge, skills and competences needed to participate effectively in society and in the economy. Having a good education greatly improves the likelihood of finding a job and earning enough money. Across OECD countries, 83% of people with university-level degrees have a job, compared with 55% for those with only a secondary school diploma. Lifetime earnings also increase with each level of education.
Following a decline in manual labour over previous decades, employers now favour a more educated labour force. High-school graduation rates therefore provide a good indication of whether a country is preparing its students to meet the minimum requirements of the job market. In Luxembourg, 77% of adults aged 25-64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, higher than the OECD average of 75%. This is truer of men than women, as 79% of men have successfully completed high-school compared with 75% of women. This 4 percentage point difference is higher than the OECD average of 1 percentage point and suggests women’s participation in secondary education could be strengthened. Among younger people – a better indicator of Luxembourg’s future – 83% of 25-34 year-olds have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, also higher than the OECD average of 82%.
People in Luxembourg can expect to go through 14.1 years of education between the ages of 5 and 39, much less than the OECD average of 17.7 years and the lowest in the OECD.
But graduation rates, while important, speak little to the quality of education received. The OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) reviews the extent to which students have acquired some of the knowledge and skills that are essential for full participation in modern societies. In 2012, PISA focused on examining students’ reading ability, skills in maths and level in sciences, as research shows that these skills are more reliable predictors of economic and social well-being than the number of years spent in school.
The average student in Luxembourg scored 490 in reading literacy, maths and sciences, lower than the OECD average of 497. Although girls outperformed boys in many OECD countries, in Luxembourg boys scored 3 points higher than girls on average.
The best-performing school systems manage to provide high-quality education to all students. In Luxembourg, the average difference in results, between the students with the highest socio-economic background and the students with the lowest socio-economic background is 121 points, much higher than the OECD average of 96 points and one of the largest gaps amongst OECD countries. This suggests the school system in Luxembourg does not provide equal access to high-quality education.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Environment – Luxembourg expand
The quality of our local living environment has a direct impact on our health. Having access to green spaces for example, is essential for quality of life. An unspoiled environment is a source of satisfaction, improves mental well-being, allows people to recover from the stress of everyday life and to perform physical activity. In Luxembourg, 6% of people feel they lack access to green spaces or recreational areas, half the 12 % average of OECD European countries.
Outdoor air pollution is one important environmental issue that directly affects the quality of peoples’ lives. Despite national and international interventions and decreases in major pollutant emissions, the health impacts of urban air pollution continue to worsen, with air pollution set to become the top environmental cause of premature mortality globally by 2050. Air pollution in urban centres, often caused by transport and the use of small-scale burning of wood or coal, is linked to a range of health problems, from minor eye irritation to upper respiratory symptoms in the short-term and chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer in the long-term. Children and the elderly may be particularly vulnerable.
PM10 – tiny particulate matter small enough to be inhaled into the deepest part of the lung – is monitored in OECD countries because it can harm human health and reduce life expectancy. In Luxembourg, PM10 levels are 12.5 micrograms per cubic meter, much lower than the OECD average of 20.1 micrograms per cubic meter and the annual guideline limit of 20 micrograms per cubic meter set by the World Health Organization. In larger cities, such as Luxembourg City and Esch-Alzette, the annual PM10 averages in have dropped from 30 micrograms per cubic meter in the 1990s to 25 micrograms per cubic meter in recent years.
Access to clean water is fundamental to human well-being. Despite significant progress in OECD countries in reducing water pollution, improvements in freshwater quality are not always easy to discern. In Luxembourg, 81% of people say they are satisfied with water quality, slightly lower than the OECD average of 84%.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030
Governance – Luxembourg expand
Trust in government is essential for social cohesion and well-being. In Luxembourg 74% of people say they trust their national government, much more than the OECD average of 39% and one of the highest rates in the OECD area. High voter turnout is another measure of public trust in government and of citizens’ participation in the political process. In the most recent elections for which data is available, voter turnout in Luxembourg was 91% of those registered. This figure is one of the highest in the OECD, where average turnout is 72%.
Ensuring that government decision making is not compromised by conflicts of interest is key to maintaining trust in government. Transparency is therefore essential to hold government to account and to maintain confidence in public institutions.
Freedom of information laws (FOI) – also referred to as access to information laws – are one of these fundamental pillars of open government. Freedom of information laws (FOI) allow the possibility for individuals to access undisclosed information. For such policies to be successful, the public should have a clear understanding of their rights under the law, should be able to file requests with ease and should be protected against any possible retaliation. Luxembourg is currently drafting a law on access to information.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Health – Luxembourg expand
Most OECD countries have enjoyed large gains in life expectancy over the past decades, thanks to improvements in living conditions, public health interventions and progress in medical care. Since 1960, life expectancy at birth in Luxembourg increased by more than 11 years. Life expectancy at birth in Luxembourg now stands at 81 years, one year above the OECD average of 80 years. Life expectancy for women is 84 years, compared with 79 years for men, a slightly smaller difference than the OECD average gender gap of six years with a life expectancy of 83 years for women and 77 for men.
Higher life expectancy is generally associated with higher healthcare spending per person, although many other factors have an impact on life expectancy (such as living standards, lifestyles, education and environmental factors). Total health spending accounts for 6.6% of GDP in Luxembourg, less than the OECD average of 9.4%. However, Luxembourg ranks well above the OECD average in terms of total health spending per person, at 4 246 USD in 2011, compared with an OECD average of 3 322 USD. Between 2000 and 2010, total health spending in Luxembourg increased in real terms by 1.5% per year on average, a slower growth rate than the OECD average of 4.0%.
Throughout the OECD, tobacco consumption and excessive weight gain remain two important risk factors for many chronic diseases. The proportion of daily smokers among adults has shown a marked decline over the past twenty-five years in most OECD countries. Smoking rates among adults in Luxembourg stand at 17.0%, lower than the OECD average of 20.9%. In many OECD countries, large proportions of the population are overweight or obese. In Luxembourg, the obesity rate among adults has increased from 15% in 1997 to 23.5%, higher than the OECD average of 17.2%. Obesity’s growing prevalence foreshadows increases in the occurrence of health problems (such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and asthma), and higher health care costs in the future.
When asked, “How is your health in general?”73% of people in Luxembourg reported to be in good health, higher than the OECD average of 69%. Despite the subjective nature of this question, answers have been found to be a good predictor of people’s future health care use. Gender, age and social status may affect answers to this question. On average in OECD countries, men are more likely to report good health than women, with an average of 72% for men and 67% for women. In Luxembourg, the average is of 75% for men and 70% for women. Not surprisingly, older people report poorer health, as do those who are unemployed, or who have less education or income. About 83% of adults with a disposable income in the top 20% in Luxembourg rate their health as ‘good’ or ‘very good’, compared to about 64% for those with a disposable income in the bottom 20%.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Life Satisfaction – Luxembourg expand
Happiness or subjective well-being can be measured in terms of life satisfaction, the presence of positive experiences and feelings, and the absence of negative experiences and feelings. Such measures, while subjective, are a useful complement to objective data to compare the quality of life across countries.
Life satisfaction measures how people evaluate their life as a whole rather than their current feelings. It captures a reflective assessment of which life circumstances and conditions are important for subjective well-being. When asked to rate their general satisfaction with life on a scale from 0 to 10, people in Luxembourg gave it a 7.1 grade, higher than the OECD average of 6.6.
There is little difference in life satisfaction levels between men and women across OECD countries. This is true in Luxembourg, where men gave their life a 7.2 grade and women 7.1. Education levels do, however, influence subjective well-being. Whereas people who have only completed primary education In Luxembourg have a life satisfaction level of 6.6, this score reaches 7.5 for people with tertiary education.
Happiness, or subjective well-being, is also measured by the presence of positive experiences and feelings, and/or the absence of negative experiences and feelings. In Luxembourg 68% of people reported having more positive experiences in an average day (feelings of rest, pride in accomplishment, enjoyment, etc.) than negative ones (pain, worry, sadness, boredom, etc.). This figure is lower than the OECD average of 76%.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Safety – Luxembourg expand
Personal security is a core element for the well-being of individuals, and largely reflects the risks of people being physically assaulted or falling victim to other types of crime. Across the OECD, assault rates have generally declined in the past five years. In Luxembourg, almost 4.3% of people reported falling victim to assault over the previous 12 months, more than the OECD average of 3.9%. There is little difference between men and women in assault rates, at respectively 4.7% and 3.9%.
The homicide rate (the number of murders per 100,000 inhabitants) is a more reliable measure of a country’s safety level because, unlike other crimes, murders are usually always reported to the police. According to the latest OECD data, Luxembourg’s homicide rate is 2.1, lower than the OECD average of 4.1. In Luxembourg, the homicide rate for men is 2.5 compared to 1.9 for women.
Fear of crime is another important indicator as it can constrain behaviour, restrict freedom and threaten the foundation of communities. Despite a general reduction in assault rates in the past five years, in many OECD countries feelings of security have declined. In Luxembourg, 59% of people feel safe walking alone at night, lower than the OECD average of 69%. While men are at a greater risk of being victims of assaults and violent crimes, women report lower feelings of security than men. This has been explained by a greater fear of sexual attacks, the feeling they must also protect their children and their concern that they may be seen as partially responsible.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Work-Life Balance – Luxembourg expand
Finding a suitable balance between work and life is a challenge for all workers, especially working parents. Some couples would like to have (more) children, but do not see how they could afford to stop working. Other parents are happy with the number of children in their family, but would like to work more. This is a challenge to governments because if parents cannot achieve their desired work/life balance, not only is their welfare lowered but so is development in the country.
An important aspect of work-life balance is the amount of time a person spends at work. Evidence suggests that long work hours may impair personal health, jeopardize safety and increase stress. People in Luxembourg work 1 609 hours a year, less than the OECD average of 1 765 hours. The share of employees working 50 hours or more per week is not very large across OECD countries. In Luxembourg, some 3% of employees work very long hours, less than the OECD average of 9%. Overall, men spend more hours in paid work: in Luxembourg 4% of men work very long hours, compared with 2% for women.