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Slovenia performs well in many measures of well-being, as shown by the fact that it ranks close to the average or higher in several topics in the Better Life Index.
Money, while it cannot buy happiness, is an important means to achieving higher living standards. In Slovenia, the average household net-adjusted disposable income per capita is 19 692 USD a year, less than the OECD average of 23 938 USD a year. But there is a considerable gap between the richest and poorest – the top 20% of the population earn close to four times as much as the bottom 20%.
In terms of employment, 64% of people aged 15 to 64 in Slovenia have a paid job, slightly below the 65% OECD employment average. Some 67% of men are in paid work, compared with 61% of women. People in Slovenia work 1 640 hours a year, less than the OECD average of 1 765 hours. Approximately 6% of employees work very long hours, less than the OECD average of 9%, with 8% of men working very long hours compared with just 4% for women.
Having a good education is an important requisite for finding a job. In Slovenia, 84% of adults aged 25-64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, higher than the OECD average of 75%. This is truer of men than women, as 86% of men have successfully completed high-school compared with 83% of women. In terms of the quality of the educational system, the average student scored 499 in reading literacy, maths and science in the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), slightly more than the OECD average of 497 points. On average in Slovenia, girls outperformed boys by 20 points, higher than the average OECD gap of 8 points.
In terms of health, life expectancy at birth in Slovenia is almost 80 years, in line with the OECD average. Life expectancy for women is 83 years, compared with 77 for men. The level of atmospheric PM10 – tiny air pollutant particles small enough to enter and cause damage to the lungs – is 25.6 micrograms per cubic meter, higher than the OECD average of 20.1 micrograms per cubic meter. Slovenia performs better in terms of water quality, as 90% of people say they are satisfied with the quality of their water, higher than the OECD average of 84%.
Concerning the public sphere, there is a strong sense of community and a moderate level of civic participation in Slovenia, where 93% of people believe that they know someone they could rely on in time of need, higher than the OECD average of 89%. Voter turnout, a measure of public trust in government and of citizens’ participation in the political process, was 66% during recent elections. This figure is lower than the OECD average of 72%. Social and economic status can affect voting rates; voter turnout for the top 20% of the population is an estimated 75% and for the bottom 20% it is an estimated 62%, a slightly broader difference than the OECD average gap of 11 percentage points.
In general, Slovenians are less satisfied with their lives than the OECD average, with 68% of people saying they have more positive experiences in an average day (feelings of rest, pride in accomplishment, enjoyment, etc.) than negative ones (pain, worry, sadness, boredom, etc.). This figure is lower than the OECD average of 76%.
OECD in Action
Slovenia Reforms for a Strong and Sustainable Recovery
During the last five years, Slovenia has endured a double‐dip recession that has seen unemployment increase to unprecedented levels, especially among the youth. The situation has improved recently, thanks to major policy initiatives to strengthen the banking system, enhance bankruptcy legislation, reform labour market policies, and support low‐income households through the tax‐and‐transfer system. This report provides policy advice on how Slovenia can support the recovery and improve the country’s long‐term economic outlookRead this report
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Slovenia in Detail
Housing – Slovenia expand
Living in satisfactory housing conditions is one of the most important aspects of people’s lives. Housing is essential to meet basic needs, such as shelter, but it is not just a question of four walls and a roof. Housing should offer a place to sleep and rest where people feel safe and have privacy and personal space; somewhere they can raise a family. All of these elements help make a house a home. And of course there is the question whether people can afford adequate housing.
Housing costs take up a large share of the household budget and represent the largest single expenditure for many individuals and families, by the time you add up elements such as rent, gas, electricity, water, furniture or repairs. In Slovenia, households on average spend 20% of their gross adjusted disposable income on keeping a roof over their heads, slightly below the OECD average of 21%.
In addition to housing costs it is also important to examine living conditions, such as the average number of rooms shared per person and whether households have access to basic facilities. In Slovenia, 93% of people say they are satisfied with their current housing situation, more than the OECD average of 87%. This high level of subjective satisfaction reflects Slovenia’s good performance in objective housing indicators.
The number of rooms in a dwelling, divided by the number of persons living there, indicates whether residents are living in crowded conditions. Overcrowded housing may have a negative impact on physical and mental health, relations with others and children’s development. In addition, dense living conditions are often a sign of inadequate water and sewage supply. In Slovenia, the average home contains 1.4 rooms per person, less than the OECD average of 1.6 rooms per person. In terms of basic facilities however, 99.6% of people in Slovenia live in dwellings with private access to an indoor flushing toilet, more than the OECD average of 97.9%.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Income – Slovenia expand
While money may not buy happiness, it is an important means to achieving higher living standards and thus greater well-being. Higher economic wealth may also improve access to quality education, health care and housing.
Household net-adjusted disposable income is the amount of money that a household earns each year after taxes and transfers. It represents the money available to a household for spending on goods or services. In Slovenia, the average household net-adjusted disposable income per capita is 19 692 USD a year, lower than the OECD average of 23 938 USD.
Household financial wealth is the total value of a household’s financial worth. In Slovenia, the average household net financial wealth per capita is estimated at 18 912 USD, lower than the OECD average of 42 903 USD. While the ideal measure of household wealth should include non-financial assets (e.g. land and dwellings), such information is currently available for only a small number of OECD countries.
Despite a general increase in living standards across OECD countries over the past fifteen years, not all people have benefited from this to the same extent. In Slovenia, the average net adjusted disposable income of the top 20% of the population is an estimated 33 405 USD a year, whereas the bottom 20% live on an estimated 9 138 USD a year.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Jobs – Slovenia expand
Having a job brings many important benefits, including: providing a source of income, improving social inclusion, fulfilling one’s own aspirations, building self-esteem and developing skills and competencies. In Slovenia, close to 64% of the working-age population aged 15 to 64 has a paid job. This figure is close to the OECD average of 65%. Employment rates are generally higher for individuals with a higher level of education; in Slovenia an estimated 85% of individuals with at least a tertiary education have a paid job, compared with an estimated 35% for those without an upper secondary education. This 50 percentage point difference is higher than the OECD average of 33 percentage points and suggests the job market in Slovenia is relatively restrictive.
Women are still less likely than men to participate in the labour market. In Slovenia, 61% of women have jobs. This is more than the OECD average of 57% but less than the 67% employment rate of men in Slovenia. This 6 percentage point gender difference is lower than the OECD average of 16 percentage points and suggests Slovenia could further improve employment opportunities for women but has generally been successful in addressing the constraints and barriers women face accessing work.
Young Slovenians, aged 15-24, however, are facing difficulties, with an unemployment rate of 20.6%, compared to the OECD average of 16.3%.
Unemployed persons are defined as those who are not currently working but are willing to do so and actively searching for work. Long-term unemployment can have a large negative effect on feelings of well-being and self-worth and result in a loss of skills, further reducing employability. In Slovenia, the percentage of the labour force that has been unemployed for a year or longer is currently at 4.2%, higher than the OECD average of 2.7%. There is little difference on average between men and women in the OECD area when it comes to long-term unemployment. In Slovenia, the long-term unemployment rate for men is slightly lower than for women, at respectively 4.1% and 4.4%.
The wages and other monetary benefits that come with employment are an important aspect of job quality. In Slovenia, people earn 33 040 US dollars per year on average, less than the OECD average of 41 010 USD. Not everyone earns that amount however. Whereas the top 20% of the population earn an estimated 40 954 USD dollars per year, the bottom 20% live on an estimated 18 872 USD per year.
Another essential factor of employment quality is job security. Workers facing a high risk of job loss are more vulnerable, especially in countries with smaller social safety nets. In Slovenia, workers face a 5% chance of losing their job, slightly lower than the OECD average of 5.3%.
More ResourcesWell‑being in the workplace: Measuring job quality
Community – Slovenia expand
Humans are social creatures. The frequency of our contact with others and the quality of our personal relationships are thus crucial determinants of our well-being. Helping others can also make you happier. People who volunteer tend to be more satisfied with their lives than those who do not. Time spent volunteering also contributes to a healthy civil society. On average, people in Slovenia spend 1 minute per day in volunteering activities, less than the OECD average of 4 minutes per day. Around 47% reported having helped a stranger in the last month, slightly less than the OECD average of 49%.
A strong social network, or community, can provide emotional support during both good and bad times as well as provide access to jobs, services and other material opportunities. In Slovenia, 93% of people believe that they know someone they could rely on in a time of need, slightly more than the OECD average of 89%. There is a 2 percentage point difference between men and women, as 94% of men believe they have this kind of social support, compared with 92% of women. While gender has little impact on social network support, there is a clear relationship between the availability of social support on the one hand, and people’s, education level on the other. In Slovenia, around 88% of people who have completed primary education report having someone to count on for help in times of need, compared to 98% for people who attained tertiary education.
A weak social network can result in limited economic opportunities, a lack of contact with others, and eventually, feelings of isolation. Socially isolated individuals face difficulties integrating into society as a contributing member and fulfilling personal aspirations.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance OECD Insights: Human Capital
Education – Slovenia expand
A well-educated and well-trained population is essential for a country’s social and economic well-being. Education plays a key role in providing individuals with the knowledge, skills and competences needed to participate effectively in society and in the economy. Having a good education greatly improves the likelihood of finding a job and earning enough money. Across OECD countries, 83% of people with university-level degrees have a job, compared with 55% for those with only a secondary school diploma. Lifetime earnings also increase with each level of education.
Following a decline in manual labour over previous decades, employers now favour a more educated labour force. High-school graduation rates therefore provide a good indication of whether a country is preparing its students to meet the minimum requirements of the job market. In Slovenia, 84% of adults aged 25-64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, higher than the OECD average of 75%. This is truer of men than women, as 86% of men have successfully completed high-school compared with 83% of women. This 3 percentage point difference is slightly higher than the OECD average of 1 percentage point. Among younger people – a better indicator of Slovenia’s future – 94% of 25-34 year-olds have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, also higher than the OECD average of 82%.
Slovenians can expect to go through 18.3 years of education between the ages of 5 and 39, more than the OECD average of 17.7 years. This high level of education expectancy echoes Slovenia’s good performance in the educational attainment of its 25-34 year-old population.
But graduation rates, while important, speak little to the quality of education received. The OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) reviews the extent to which students have acquired some of the knowledge and skills that are essential for full participation in modern societies. In 2012, PISA focused on examining students’ reading ability, skills in maths and level in sciences, as research shows that these skills are more reliable predictors of economic and social well-being than the number of years spent in school.
The average student in Slovenia scored 499 in reading literacy, maths and sciences, higher than the OECD average. On average, girls outperformed boys by 20 points, much more than the average OECD gap of 8 points.
The best-performing school systems manage to provide high-quality education to all students. In Slovenia, the average difference in results, between the students with the highest socio-economic background and the students with the lowest socio-economic background is 100 points, more than the OECD average of 96 points. This suggests the school system in the Slovenia does not provide equal access to high-quality education.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Environment – Slovenia expand
The quality of our local living environment has a direct impact on our health. Having access to green spaces for example, is essential for quality of life. An unspoiled environment is a source of satisfaction, improves mental well-being, allows people to recover from the stress of everyday life and to perform physical activity. In Slovenia, 9% of people feel they lack access to green spaces or recreational areas, less than the 12% average of OECD European countries.
Outdoor air pollution is one important environmental issue that directly affects the quality of peoples’ lives. Despite national and international interventions and decreases in major pollutant emissions, the health impacts of urban air pollution continue to worsen, with air pollution set to become the top environmental cause of premature mortality globally by 2050. Air pollution in urban centres, often caused by transport and the use of small-scale burning of wood or coal, is linked to a range of health problems, from minor eye irritation to upper respiratory symptoms in the short-term and chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer in the long-term. Children and the elderly may be particularly vulnerable.
PM10 – tiny particulate matter small enough to be inhaled into the deepest part of the lung – is monitored in OECD countries because it can harm human health and reduce life expectancy. In Slovenia, PM10 levels are 25.6 micrograms per cubic meter, higher than the OECD average of 20.1 micrograms per cubic meter and the annual guideline limit of 20 micrograms per cubic meter set by the World Health Organization.
Access to clean water is fundamental to human well-being. Despite significant progress in OECD countries in reducing water pollution, improvements in freshwater quality are not always easy to discern. In Slovenia, 90% of people say they are satisfied with water quality, higher than the OECD average of 84%.
More ResourcesOECD Environmental Outlook to 2030 How's Life? at a Glance
Governance – Slovenia expand
Trust in government is essential for social cohesion and well-being. In Slovenia, 16% of people say they trust their national government, less than the OECD average of 39% and one of the lowest rates in the OECD. High voter turnout is another measure of public trust in government and of citizens’ participation in the political process. In the most recent elections for which data is available, voter turnout in Slovenia was 66% of those registered. This figure is lower than the OECD average of 72%.
Even if the right to vote is universal in all OECD countries, not everyone exercises this right. There is little difference in the voting rates of men and women in most OECD countries. This is the case in Slovenia, where the voter turnout of men and women is similar, at an estimated 66% and 65%. While on average there are few differences between men and women concerning participation in elections, income can have a strong influence on voter turnout. In Slovenia, voter turnout for the top 20% of the population is an estimated 75%, whereas the participation rate of the bottom 20% is an estimated 62%. This 13 percentage point difference is slightly larger than the OECD average difference of 11 percentage points.
Ensuring that government decision making is not compromised by conflicts of interest is key to maintaining trust in government. Transparency is therefore essential to hold government to account and to maintain confidence in public institutions.
Freedom of information laws (FOI) allow the possibility for individuals to access undisclosed information. For such policies to be successful, the public should have a clear understanding of their rights under the law, should be able to file requests with ease and should be protected against any possible retaliation. People in Slovenia can file a request for information either in writing, online, by telephone or in person – thus greatly facilitating the FOI process. Slovenia is one of seven OECD countries to allow anonymous requests, but does not have built-in protections to shield individuals from possible retaliation.
Better Policies for Better Lives
New web tools to strengthen citizen participation
Slovenia increasingly recognizes citizen participation in the decision-making process as a core element of good governance. The government is committed to involving the public in preparing legislation
The Draft Law on Volunteering is an example of good practice in citizen involvement. Government and NGO representatives were members of the working group set up to draft the law, which was then put up for debate and public discussion. All comments and suggestions were then analysed by the working group before a revised text was submitted for consideration and adoption by the government.
The government is also using new technology tools to enhance citizen involvement. A special web tool invites people to make comments or suggest changes to rules or systems. Proposals are publicly debated and voted on by registered users of the website. If they generate enough support, the competent government body has to consider them and respond publicly within 30 days. The response is subject to further discussion on the web portal.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Health – Slovenia expand
Most OECD countries have enjoyed large gains in life expectancy over the past decades, thanks to improvements in living conditions, public health interventions and progress in medical care. Life expectancy at birth in Slovenia stands at 80 years, in line with the OECD average. Life expectancy for women is 83 years, compared with 77 for men, in line with OECD averages.
Higher life expectancy is generally associated with higher healthcare spending per person, although many other factors have an impact on life expectancy (such as living standards, lifestyles, education and environmental factors). Total health spending accounts for 8.9% of GDP in Slovenia, less than the average of 9.4% in OECD countries. Slovenia also ranks below the OECD average in terms of health spending per person, at 2 421 USD in 2011, compared with an OECD average of 3 322 USD. Between 2000 and 2010, total health spending in Slovenia increased in real terms by 3.1% per year on average, a slightly slower rate than the OECD average of 4.0%, and then decreased to 0.4% in 2011.
Throughout the OECD, tobacco consumption and excessive weight gain remain two important risk factors for many chronic diseases. At 18.9% of the adult population, the daily smoking rate among adults in Slovenia is below the OECD average of 20.9%. In many OECD countries, large proportions of the population are overweight or obese. In Slovenia, the obesity rate among adults – based on self-reported height and weight – was 16.4% in 2010, lower than the OECD average of 17.2%. Obesity’s growing prevalence foreshadows increases in the occurrence of health problems (such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and asthma), and higher health care costs in the future.
When asked, “How is your health in general?”61% of people in Slovenia reported to be in good health, less than the OECD average of 69%. Despite the subjective nature of this question, answers have been found to be a good predictor of people’s future health care use. Gender, age and social status may affect answers to this question. On average in OECD countries, men are more likely to report good health than women, with an average of 72% for men and 67% for women. In Slovenia, the average is 64% for men and 58% for women. Not surprisingly, older people report poorer health, as do those who are unemployed, or who have less education or income. About 75% of adults with a disposable income in the top 20% in Slovenia rated their health as ‘good’ or ‘very good’, compared to about 46% for those with a disposable income in the bottom 20%.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Life Satisfaction – Slovenia expand
Happiness or subjective well-being can be measured in terms of life satisfaction, the presence of positive experiences and feelings, and the absence of negative experiences and feelings. Such measures, while subjective, are a useful complement to objective data to compare the quality of life across countries.
Life satisfaction measures how people evaluate their life as a whole rather than their current feelings. It captures a reflective assessment of which life circumstances and conditions are important for subjective well-being. When asked to rate their general satisfaction with life on a scale from 0 to 10, Slovenians gave it a 6.0 grade, lower than the OECD average of 6.6.
There is little difference in life satisfaction levels between men and women across OECD countries. This is true in Slovenia, where men gave their life a 6.1 grade, only slightly higher than the 5.9 grade given by women. Education levels do, however, influence subjective well-being. Whereas people who have only completed primary education in Slovenia have a life satisfaction level of 5.5, this score reaches 7.0 for people with tertiary education.
Happiness, or subjective well-being, is also measured by the presence of positive experiences and feelings, and/or the absence of negative experiences and feelings. In Slovenia, 68% of people reported having more positive experiences in an average day (feelings of rest, pride in accomplishment, enjoyment, etc.) than negative ones (pain, worry, sadness, boredom, etc.). This figure is lower than the OECD average of 76%.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Safety – Slovenia expand
Personal security is a core element for the well-being of individuals, and largely reflects the risks of people being physically assaulted or falling victim to other types of crime. Across the OECD, assault rates have generally declined in the past five years. In Slovenia, 3.9% of people reported falling victim to assault over the previous 12 months, in line with the OECD average. There is a difference of more than one percentage point between men and women in assault rates, at respectively 3.2% and 4.5%.
The homicide rate (the number of murders per 100,000 inhabitants) is a more reliable measure of a country’s safety level because, unlike other crimes, murders are usually always reported to the police. According to the latest OECD data, Slovenia’s homicide rate is 0.4, much lower than the OECD average of 4.1. In Slovenia, the homicide rate is the nearly same for men and for women, at respectively 0.5 and 0.4.
Fear of crime is another important indicator as it can constrain behaviour, restrict freedom and threaten the foundation of communities. Despite a general reduction in assault rates in the past five years, in many OECD countries feelings of security have declined. In Slovenia, 81% of people feel safe walking alone at night, higher than the OECD average of 69%. While men are at a greater risk of being victims of assaults and violent crimes, women report lower feelings of security than men. This has been explained by a greater fear of sexual attacks, the feeling they must also protect their children and their concern that they may be seen as partially responsible.
More ResourcesHow's Life? at a Glance
Work-Life Balance – Slovenia expand
Finding a suitable balance between work and life is a challenge for all workers, especially working parents. Some couples would like to have (more) children, but do not see how they could afford to stop working. Other parents are happy with the number of children in their family, but would like to work more. This is a challenge to governments because if parents cannot achieve their desired work/life balance, not only is their welfare lowered but so is development in the country.
People spend one-tenth to one-fifth of their time on unpaid work. The distribution of tasks within the family is still influenced by gender roles: men are more likely to spend more hours in paid work, while women spend longer on unpaid domestic work. Men in Slovenia, spend 166 minutes per day cooking, cleaning or caring, more than the OECD average of 141 minutes but still less than Slovenian women who spend 286 minutes per day on average on domestic work.
Another important aspect of work-life balance is the amount of time a person spends at work. Evidence suggests that long work hours may impair personal health, jeopardize safety and increase stress. People in Slovenia work 1 640 hours a year, less than the OECD average of 1 765 hours. The share of employees working 50 hours or more per week is not very large across OECD countries. In Slovenia, nearly 6% of employees work very long hours, less than the OECD average of 9%. Overall, men spend more hours in paid work: in Slovenia 8% of men work very long hours, compared with 4% for women.
The more people work, the less time they have to spend on other activities, such as time with others or leisure. The amount and quality of leisure time is important for people’s overall well-being, and can bring additional physical and mental health benefits. In Slovenia,full-time workers devote 61% of their day on average, or 14.6 hours, to personal care (eating, sleeping, etc.) and leisure (socialising with friends and family, hobbies, games, computer and television use, etc.) – slightly less than the OECD average of 15 hours. Fewer hours in paid work for women do not necessarily result in greater leisure time. In Slovenia, men devote approximately 15 hours per day to personal care and leisure and women 14 hours per day.